Małgorzata Iwanowska-Ludwińska (1950) jest malarką, poetką, członkinią Związku Polskich Artystów Plastyków oraz Stowarzyszenia Pisarzy Polskich. Wraz z mężem, zmarłym w 2000 roku Jerzym Ludwińskim, współprowadziła artystyczne zajęcia terapeutyczne w Lubiążu i Galerię Punkt w Toruniu.
Iwanowska-Ludwińska w 1973 roku ukończyła Wydział Sztuk Pięknych Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, rok później wstąpiła do ZPAP okręgu toruńskiego. Następnie pracowała w Galerii Współczesnej w Warszawie. W połowie lat siedemdziesiątych prowadziła wraz z Jerzym Ludwińskim terapię sztuką w eksperymentalnej placówce w Lubiążu pod Wrocławiem. Od 1975 roku oboje przenieśli się do Torunia, gdzie stworzyli konceptualną Galerię Punkt. W latach osiemdziesiątych Iwanowska-Ludwińska skupiła się na własnej twórczości (malarstwie i rysunku), uczestnicząc m.in. w Biennale Sztuki Niezależnej „Droga i prawda” na Ostrowiu Tumskim we Wrocławiu. Wraz z mężem czynnie uczestniczyła w życiu artystycznym lat siedemdziesiątych i osiemdziesiątych: wystawach, plenerach, sympozjach. Swoje dzieła prezentowała łącznie na około pięćdziesięciu wystawach indywidualnych i ponad czterdziestu – zbiorowych, ponadto opublikowała dziewięć książek (poetyckich i prozatorskich).
W 2004 roku Iwanowska-Ludwińska została uhonorowana Nagrodą Specjalną Ministra Kultury za całokształt twórczości. W 2008 roku przekazała Dolnośląskiemu Towarzystwu Zachęta Sztuk Pięknych dokumenty, zdjęcia i przedmioty osobiste po zmarłym w 2000 roku mężu; materiały te stały się podstawą Archiwum Jerzego Ludwińskiego.
- Torun 87, Poland
Virgil Ierunca (real name Virgil Untaru, 1920–2006) was a Romanian literary critic, writer, and cultural journalist. He was born on 16 August 1920 in Lădești commune, Vâlcea County and in 1943 he graduated from the Faculty of Literature and Philosophy of Bucharest University. After World War II, he began to publish articles about French culture in newspapers towards the left of the spectrum of Romanian political life (Dumitrescu 1997, 304; Meseșan 2015, 82–83). Later on, Ierunca explained that his initial leftist sympathies were the result of his anti-fascism and of the fact that, as he put it, “communists overwhelmed me with attention which I gave up when I understood their game” (Meseșan 2015, 83). He thus left for France with an Arthur Koestler scholarship granted by the French Institute in Bucharest, and in 1948 he sought and was granted political asylum there (Meseșan 2015, 84). In 1952, he married Monica Lovinescu, with whom he shared his passion for literature and her determination in supporting dissidence against Romanian communist rule.
In exile, Virgil Ierunca focused on cultural journalism, working for Radio Paris (1951–1975) and from 1975 for Radio Free Europe (RFE) where he collaborated on two programmes: Cronica pesimistului (Chronicle of the pessimist) as part of the Actualitatea românească (Romanian Cultural Events) and Povestea vorbei – pagini uitate, pagini cenzurate, pagini exilate (The story of the word – forgotten pages, censored pages, exiled pages). He also wrote articles, essays, and even poetry for magazines and newspapers published by the Romanian exile community and acted as editor-in-chief for several Romanian publications printed abroad (Meseșan 2015, 85; Crăciun 2009, 285). In his broadcasts, Virgil Ierunca used cultural journalism to express his anti-communist convictions, as he sharply criticised many authors of the Romanian literary scene. In addition, he was among the first to document the mass-scale repression perpetrated by the communist regime against innocent individuals.
He shared Monica Lovinescu’s opinion that politically unbiased literature was possible even in communist Romania (Stan Snejana 2010, 120–121), and consequently he used his broadcasts and written pieces to acknowledge the moral integrity and literary value of some of the Romanian writers marginalised for their reluctance to follow the official canon. On the other hand, he openly condemned the compromise made with the regime by another part of the Romanian writers and saw his criticism as a moral duty towards the present and especially the future. Through his journalist project entitled Antologia rușinii (The anthology of shame), Ierunca became the needed voice that denounced “the stupidity, servility, and insolence” of those intellectuals “who did not only lose their conscience but also their reason” (Merișanu and Taloș 2009, 7–8). Antologia rușinii identified those who shamelessly praised the communist regime, its policies and leaders and it was supposed to function as a vaccine against the forgetting of those acts of collaboration that nurtured and ensured the survival of the regime (Mănescu 2012, 13–14, 25, 27–29). Virgil Ierunca started the Antologia rușinii column in November 1957 and resumed the project after the so-called Theses of July 1971 when the Romanian press was flooded with these “texts of shame” (Meseșan 2015, 85–86; Mănescu 2012, 67–70).
Virgil Ierunca remained mostly known for his indictment of communist repression. In 1981, he published Fenomenul Pitești (The Pitești phenomenon), the first account of the extreme psychological and physical torture that inmates in prison of Pitești were subjected to round-the-clock by other inmates in 1949–1952. Besides exposing the horrors of this rather unique “reeducation experiment,” which came to be associated with Pitești, although it was implemented in several other prisons too, Ierunca raised again the issue of collaboration with the regime. In this case, he condemned the lack of morality and conscience on the part of those who designed this experiment and of those who participated willingly in the tortures and humiliations (Mănescu 2015, 23, 71–72). Due to his opposition to the Romanian communist regime, the Securitate tried to silence Virgil Ierunca, but the would-be assassin surrendered to the police in Berlin (Lovinescu 2001, 247). Ierunca’s anti-communist activity gained official recognition in 2006 when the Romanian authorities praised Virgil Ierunca and his wife, Monica Lovinescu, for their activity at RFE and for supporting and popularising acts of cultural opposition against the communist regime (Mănescu 2012, 16).
- Paris, France
Gediminas Ilgūnas was a journalist, writer, ethnographer and traveller. (Although his full name was Stanislovas Gediminas, he chose to be called by his middle name Gediminas.) In 1953, he was imprisoned for anti-Soviet activities. According to his criminal record, he was arrested and sentenced to 25 years for 'anti-Soviet activity'. He was accused of participating in an organised 'anti-Soviet group', of attacking a Red Army soldier and stealing his gun, of stealing a typewriter from a Soviet organisation, and of maintaining contacts with guerilla fighters. However, in 1956, Ilgūnas' sentence was shortened to seven years, and in 1957 he was released. Although there is no information about his release, after the 20th Communist Party Congress in February 1956, many Lithuanians who had been imprisoned for anti-Soviet activity were released; Ilgūnas was probably one of them.
In 1959, together with his close friend the philologist and literary historian Vincas Kuzmickas, he started to organise ethnographic expeditions, not only in Lithuania, but also in the Soviet Union (Russia), and to collect material about important personalities in Lithuanian national history (the geologist Jonas Čerskis, and Vincas Pietaris, the author of the first historical novel in the Lithuanian language), who were practically unknown to the general public. He graduated from the Faculty of Philology at Vilnius University in 1976. Until 1990, Ilgūnas worked for a state construction company. The ethnographic and cultural activities which he was involved in were not considered dangerous by the regime.
During the time of perestroika, Ilgūnas founded a Sąjūdis movement group in his native town Jonava in 1988, and in 1990 he was elected to the Supreme Council, which on 11 March 1990 proclaimed Lithuania's independence. He made a political career in the Republic of Lithuania, as director of the Archive Department, chairman of the Board of Lithuanian Television and Radio, an active member of the Lithuanian Social Democratic Party, and as an advisor to President Algirdas Brazauskas.
The Gediminas Ilgūnas collection was founded in 1988. Ilgūnas presented nine units of material to the Lithuanian SSR Central State Archive of Literature and Art. The manuscript of his biography of Vincas Pietaris was among them. In 1992, he again presented more than a hundred units of documents to the Lithuanian Archive of Literature and Art. Among them were various documents he had collected relating to the life of Pietaris and his writings (copies of articles, etc). In this way, the Ilgūnas collection in the archive grew substantially.
- Vilnius , Lithuania
Krasimir Iliev graduated from the Bulgarian National Academy of Art, Department History of Art in 1982. After his graduation, he earned his living by activities which were not related to art studies. He worked as a dyer, tiler, restorer of furniture and in other manual professions. He organized several independent exhibitions, for example at the National Palace of Culture in Sofia, 1989; "K–14" in Oberhausen in 1990; at the Bochumer Kulturrat in 1991; in the Fridtjof Nansen-Haus in Ingelheim in 1992. In 1994 he started working with the Open Society Foundation. In 2005 he was invited by Liliya Borova to collaborate with the Krag+ Gallery. Since 2007 he has worked as a keeper and curator at the Sofia City Art Gallery (SCAG). Iliev is initiator and curator of numerous exhibitions related to the forms of opposition in the field of fine arts, such as retrospectives about Ivan Georgiev-Rembrandt, Angel Stanev, Evgeniya Vodenicharova, and Ziyatin Nuriev. H was initiator and curator of the thematic exhibition "Forms of Resistance", for which he also wrote the catalogue of the same title.
The exhibitions he conceptualized are research projects by means of which the author poses questions and gives publicity to concealed crimes against Bulgarian artists and demonstrates the regime's mechanisms to ideologically control art. Iliev shows the active role of some painters, their resistance against the system, and the dogmas of Socialist Realism.
Krasimir Iliev recounts: "The main question in this attempt for research is whether there was a resistance by the painters against the roller of the ideological machine, which in the 1970s and the early 1980s gradually transformed into a stand with carrots (if I may use the stick and the carrot metaphor). The roller as well as the hand-cart had one and the same aim – to deform. I don't know which one was worse. The attitude of the authorities in the country caused by their limited intellectual capacity and the ambition to follow like idiots every Soviet example, especially in the first decade, led to tragic results in fine arts. (...) Those in powerful positions erased the traces of their participation in the repressions against their colleagues. Documents that were supposed to be kept in the archive were found thrown in front Iliya Petrov's house. The remains of the files of the State Security have a crucial importance for lifting the veil and this is relevant for all times, for the whole forty-year period of the research. It is impossible to reach the facts let alone understand what was happening if we don't read the files. (...) The fear still exists. We, the people who lived during those years, built a barrier between our thinking and the public speaking."
- Sofia City Art Gallery
Gyula Illyés (1902–1983) was a Hungarian poet, writer, dramatist, translator, and outstanding figure of Hungarian literature in the twentieth century. He was born in Felsőrácegrespuszta to a peasant family. He studied in the high schools of Dombóvár and Bonyhád. After his parents’ divorce, he moved to Budapest with his mother in 1916, where he finished his high school studies. He published his first printed poem in 1920. Between 1917 and 1921, he studied at the Commercial School of Izabella Street, where he graduated. In 1921, Illyés enrolled in the university of Budapest, where he studied Hungarian and French language and literature, but as he took part in illegal left-wing activities, he had to emigrate to Vienna at the end of the year. He later moved to Paris. In France, he took part in the cultural work of the emigrant Hungarian trade union and the circles of the labor movement. He became friends with several French avantgarde, surrealist, and Dadaist writers. He got amnesty in 1926, so he returned to Hungary and became a contributor to the famous literary periodical Nyugat. Between 1927 and 1936, he was a clerk at the Phőnix Insurance Company. From 1937 to 1948, he was the press rapporteur of the Hungarian National Bank. In the middle of the 1930s, he joined the movement of folk writers and became one of its leaders. Between 1934 and 1938, he was a co-worker for the periodical Válasz (“The Answer”). In 1937, he became coeditor of Nyugat, and between 1941 and 1944 he was editor Magyar Csillag.
In 1945–1946, Illyés was one of the leaders of the National Peasant Party and a member of parliament. Between 1946 and 1949, he served as the editor of Válasz. He resigned from his parliamentary mandate in November 1948 and retired from public life. Under the Revolution of 1956, he became a leader of the Petőfi Party (a resurrection of the National Peasant Party). After the defeat, he continued his life as a recluse. He only started publishing again in 1961. In 1969, Illyés became a vice president of the PEN Club. As a supporter of the national opposition, Illyés often spoke out in support of protecting the Hungarian minorities living in the neighboring countries.
Peep Ilmet is an Estonian writer, translator and author of lyrics. He studied history at the University of Tartu, but never graduated. He later worked as a book restorer. Since 1985, he has been a freelance writer. His first official collection of poems was published in 1980. Before that, he published poetry in manuscript magazines.
Ultimately, Ilse served in the East German National People’s Army as a so-called “Bausoldat” (construction soldier) and was active in working groups that provided information about military education in schools as well as seminars on conscientious objection to military service throughout the country. He also frequented environmental groups in Halle.
Andreas Ilse was permitted to attain his secondary school leaving qualifications. In 1986, he moved to Jena to begin his university studies. There, he found “Artists for others” (Künstler für Andere), a collective with the goal of supporting and providing those artists who did not conform to the official cultural policy of the government with opportunities to present their work. The Committee for the "Matthias Domaschk" Thuringian Archive of Contemporary History grew out of this network; Ilse became the president of this committee, completed his studies and now works as an advisor in the Federal Volunteers Service.
- Finne, Germany
Ghiţa Ionescu (b. 21 March 1913, Bucharest – d. 28 June 1996, London) was a British political scientist of Romanian origin who stood out during the 1960s as one of the most influential specialists in the study of Romanian communism in the West for his comprehensive monographs on the first two decades of the communist regime in Romania. He also manifested a vocal critical attitude towards the communist dictatorship in Romania, either as the head of the Romanian service of Radio Free Europe during the late 1950s and early 1960s, or as a British political analyst specialising in the study of East European issues.
Born into a Romanian middle class family in Bucharest, he graduated in law from the University of Bucharest and followed a career in diplomacy. During the 1930s, he published in the left-oriented Romanian press such as Era Nouă and displayed an anti-fascist attitude. In 1947, when the communist takeover in Romania was in its last stages, Ionescu was a member of the diplomatic staff of the Romanian Embassy in Ankara. Ionescu chose not to return to Romania, preferring to join the Romanian exile in the West, where he was involved in Romanian anti-communist organisations such as the Romanian National Committee. The latter was founded in 1949 by Romanian former politicians in exile and claimed to represent the legitimate political leadership of the country, hoping that the West would “liberate” Romania from communist dictatorship and reinstall the interwar democracy. Ionescu was its secretary from 1955 to 1958. From 1959 to 1963, he was the head of the Romanian service of Radio Free Europe (1959–1963). At Radio Free Europe, he accumulated an expertise in East European affairs which later was a good ground for building an academic career as specialist in the Eastern Bloc. He moved to the UK and obtained there an assignment to write a book about postwar Romania, a topic on which at that moment there were no comprehensive contributions in the West. This book was published in 1964 by Oxford University Press under the title: Communism in Romania. 1944–1962 and is considered a classic monograph on the first two decades of postwar Romania. This contribution, alongside his second book entitled: The Reluctant Ally: A Study of Communist Neo-Colonialism (1965), which was among the first to analyse the Romanian communists’ split with Moscow, asserted him as a renowned specialist in the study of communist regimes in Eastern Europe. Later on, he extended his fields of research into various areas such as the comparative study of communist regimes, European integration, and populism. Among his most appreciated contributions on these topics may be mentioned: The Politics of the European Communist States (1967); Opposition: Past and Present of a Political Institution (co-authored with Isabel de Madariaga; 1968); Populism: Its Meaning and National Characteristics (edited by Ghiţă Ionescu and Ernest Gellner; 1969). Comparative Communist Politics: Studies in Comparative politics (1972); Between Sovereignty and Integration: Introduction (edited by Ghiţă Ionescu; 1974).
Ionescu taught political science at the University of Manchester and at the London School of Economics. At the latter, he launched in 1965 together with the historian Isabel de Madariaga the academic journal Government and Opposition. Ionescu was also involved in the activities of professional associations of political scientists and became chairman of the research committee on European Unification of the International Political Science Association.
Ionescu’s contributions on Romanian communism did not only open new research fields in Western academia, but also represented a foundation on which post-1989 Romanian historiography dealing with the recent past developed. As the political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu has emphasised, Ghiţă Ionescu was not only an internationally appreciated specialist on East European affairs and a role model for the post-1989 generations who embarked on the study of political science, but also an “academic with a deep ethical vocation,” who dedicated his entire life to promoting democratic values (Tismăneanu 2013). In this respect, he was also a source of inspiration for post-1989 Romanian civil society.
- London, United Kingdom