- Warszawa, Warsaw, Poland
Maciej „Metys” Hojak (1972) jest współtwórcą Poznańskiej Biblioteki Anarchistycznej i działaczem Federacji Anarchistycznej w Poznaniu. W latach osiemdziesiątych kolporter „Przeglądu Wiadomości Agencyjnych”, od lat dziewięćdziesiątych wydaje książki i czasopisma anarchistyczne w Bractwie Trojka.
Hojak pochodzi z robotniczego osiedla Rataje w Poznaniu. Jego rodzice, z zawodu tokarz i sprzątaczka, sami wywodzili się z warstwy chłopskiej, a Hojak w swoich wspomnieniach wracał do dziecięcych lat spędzanych w dużej mierze na wsi. Podobny rodowód – z nowej klasy robotniczej, powstałej w PRL w związku z intensywną industrializacją i urbanizacją – ma wielu członków środowisk anarchistycznych w Poznaniu. „Metys” uczył się w zasadniczej szkole zawodowej o profilu poligraficznym. Kształcił się na zecera, zawód, który łączył pracę fizyczną z przygotowywaniem do druku książek i czasopism. Ponadto, zecerzy w latach osiemdziesiątych owiani byli nimbem tajnych, podziemnych drukarni „Solidarności”. W wyborze szkoły łączyły się więc robotnicze pochodzenie, ambicje literackie i intelektualne oraz buntownicza postawa. Od 1986 roku Hojak pracował jako kolporter drugoobiegowego „Przeglądu Wiadomości Agencyjnych”, co stanowiło okazję do poznania działaczy opozycyjnych i lektury niezależnej prasy. Splot transformacji ustrojowej i przemian technologicznych sprawił, że z nastaniem nowej dekady świeżo wyuczony zawód Hojaka stracił jakąkolwiek wartość: skład komputerowy i komercyjne drukarnie offsetowe uczyniły zecerów zbędnymi.
„Metys” na początku lat dziewięćdziesiątych zainteresowany był przede wszystkim undergroundową twórczością: artzinami, mail artem, wlepkami. Związany był z Niezależną Grupą Twórców „Imperatyw” i wydawanym przez nich czasopismem literackim „Woskówka”, a także z działającą przy ulicy Sierocej w Poznaniu Społeczną Czytelnią Wydawnictw Krajowych i Emigracyjnych. Równolegle redagował artzin „Szelest”, neodadaistyczny, ręcznie wyklejany, powstający kolektywnie (bez podpisywania autorów). „Szelest” stanowił okazję do zabaw i eksperymentów: tytuły, a niekiedy całe utwory wyklejano literami wyciętymi z gazet, zaś powielone na ksero egzemplarze kolorowano kredkami Bambino. Redagowanie zina z czasem przerodziło się w wydawanie tomików wierszy i reprintów broszur z klasycznymi tekstami anarchistycznymi.
W 1994 roku powstała Oficyna Wydawnicza Bractwa Trojka, którą Hojak współprowadzi do dzisiaj. Trojka stanowi obecnie zdecydowanie największe anarchistyczne wydawnictwo w Polsce. W tym samym roku założony został skłot Rozbrat, którego kolektywu „Metys” jest członkiem. W 1997 roku Hojak był jednym ze współzałożycieli Poznańskiej Biblioteki Anarchistycznej, mieszczącej się właśnie na Rozbracie. Aktywizm społeczny i pasje literacko-wydawnicze łączył z prowadzeniem warsztatów terapii zajęciowej. W bibliotece pracuje do dziś, jako jedyny z grona jej założycieli. Angażuje się również w inne inicjatywy poznańskich środowisk wolnościowych.
- Poznań Pułaskiego 21A, Poland 60-607
Born Karl- Heinz Tanzyna, he was adopted by the Jena family Hahnemann shortly after his birth. He never met his biological mother. From 1965 to 1970 he studied architecture in Weimar and began using the name Gino. Having finished his studies, he began working for Hermann Henselmann, one of the best-known GDR architects.
While still working as an architect he received an offer to work as a model. Soon he quit his office job and became one of the few state-approved menswear models in the GDR. He also worked as a costume- and stage designer in theatres in Berlin, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. He was the last stage designer at the Palast der Republik in Berlin.
He was open concerning his belonging to the LGBT communities, wrote poetry and prose and is considered to be one of the first GDR writers who openly dealt with homosexuality in his works. He saw himself as part of the artistic “Underground”. In the 80s his poetry and prose appeared in underground magazines like „Schaden“, “Entwerter/Oder”, “U.S.W.”, der „Ariadnefabrik“ and many more.
During the same time he experimented with and sought to test the boundaries of Super-8 filming. He filmed his own scripts as an independent director. According to the historian Claus Löser, without Hahnemann’s contributions, the independent film scene in the GDR would have developed much differently. As film-maker, he was also part of the “Underground” and showed his own, independent view of the GDR-reality with his movies.
He showed his work at single- and group exhibitions organized multimedia performances and readings. He published self-made artist’s books, developed set scenery and remained a writer and cultural figure even after the fall of the wall. In 1993 he initiated as an author, programme director and presenter the yearly “Bildsalon” at the Literaturforum im Brecht-House Berlin. He translated works by the American poet John Eppstein into German, took part in exhibitions like "BERLIN-MOSKAU 1950-2000” and also contributed works to the “3. Biennale for contemporary art” 2004 in Berlin.
He received a number of scholarships: from the Berlin Senate, Academy Castle Solitude Stuttgart and the Villa Massimo in Rome, as well as the Alfred-Döblin-scholarship of the Berlin Academy of Arts.
Gino Hahnemann died on April 17th 2006.
- Berlin, Germany
- Weimar, Germany
- 01662 Meißen Burgstraße 29 , Deutschland
Poet, performer, visual artist. Born in Budapest as Tibor Frankl, in an intellectual family. "I have documents about it. I can prove it with these, if required. However it is possible that these documents are goldbricks." - disseminated suspicion concerning his origin in his autobiography written in 1974. His poems regularly appeared already in the journal of the high school, than he started his upper level studies at the English department of ELTE in 1965. A year later, at the age of 19 he was accused with "continually comitted agitation" as the secondary defendant in the trial of the so called "downtown gang" (fabricated by the police) and sentenced to one and half years in jail. After his release he could not continue his university studies, so he took a job as a purchasing agent of a wood- and paper-industrial cooperative.
Some of his poems and essays appeared in periodicals and anthologies (1968, 1974, 1976). In this period he started to publish under the name Tibor Hajas (his collected writings released in 2005 contains 460 pages without bibliography). Paralel to this he turned to visual arts, created conceptual works (Prosthesises, 1974-76; Analysisdetonation 1-5, 1976; Tattooed slide, 1976), photo-actions (This wall does not exist, 1974; Letter to my friend to Paris, 1975; Living comics, 1975). Participated in the Chapel Studio exhibitions in Balatonboglár, the exhibiton "Exposure" in the Lajos Hatvany Museum thematizing the use of photograps in visual arts. Regularly exhibited also in the Club of Young Artists, where he was awarded in 1975 and 1976.
From the middle of the seventies he held theoretical lectures (sometimes combined with actons) on film, photography and visual arts. His collaboration with János Vető from 1974 resulted in significant body art actions, photoperformances (Flesh painting I-IV, 1978; Surface torture I-III, 1978; Image whipping I-III, 1978-79; Make up sketches, 1979), experimental film (Self-fashion show, 1976), and videos (The guest, 1977; Jewels of the night, 1978). "Beside the total activity called 'art' I am mainly interested in cigars" - phrased his orientation in his autobiography dated 1976.
From 1978 he produced high-impact performances. He is called the begetter and the most significant practicioner of the genre in Hungary. His demand toward totality menifested best in his performanes, where he often played with hazard and pain ("he shocked on visceral level, creating stress in order to let the viewer feel adrenalin in hir throat" - as a critic worded it). The performances executed with the help of assistants were carefully designed in every detail. He often operated in full darkness, with flashing magnesium to let the viewer record the moment in his memory. "I have written and published poems, and forgot them; I participated in local and international exhibitions, and forgot them; I held lectures actions and performances, and forgot them with a few exceptions" - reflected on his activities in his autobiography dated 1979.
"The freedom and complexity of raising a problem, which was the privilege of art until now, has to step into our fate: feudalism is over, art is not a sattelite and not an outspoken jester, but an undomestificably specific mode of human cognition bearing a vote in every brain, which is unseparable from the reasoned definition of freedom, the »free deployment of all human capabilities« - as he phrased in an essay on art published only twenty-five years after his death. He died in a car accident in 1980, at the age of 34. Following his death several memorial and retrospective exhibitions of his oeuvre were organized (King Stephan Museum, Székesfehérvár, 1987; Ernst Museum, Budapest, 1997; Ludwig Museum Budapest 2005). His photo tableaus were featured at the core exhibition of the 57th Venice Biennial (Viva Arte Viva, 2017).
- Budapest, Hungary
Hungarian Széchenyi Prize-winning folk musician, teacher. Halmos supported the collections of folk music from the beginning. He is one of the founding members of Sebő Band; he was also a member of the band Kalamajka from 1990.
He was born in Szombathely on 4 June 1946. His father, Béla Halmos, was an architect; his mother was Rozália Szabó M. He learned music with his four sisters, and he studied classical music. He married Katalin Gyenes in 1969.
Halmos spent his childhood in Gyula, and it was also in Gyula that he began to study classical music. He graduated from the Faculty of Architecture at the Technical University of Budapest in 1970 as a design architect. Between 1970 and 1972 and 1979–82, he worked at the City Planning and Design Institute [Városépítési Tudományos és Tervező Intézet] as an architect. In 1969 he appeared in the “Röpülj, páva!” [Fly peacock] with Ferenc Sebő. They sang folk songs with guitar accompaniment. Halmos also competed as an individual and won.
He and Ferenc Sebő founded the Sebő-Halmos Duo and, in 1974, the Sebő Band. Thankfully, the best ethnomusicologists (Lajos Vargyas, György Martin, Zoltán Kallós, László Vikár, and Bálint Sárosi) knew about the folk music. Halmos traveled to Transylvania to listen to traditional folk music, and he tried to learn it too. He traveled to Szék (Sic, Romania) and saw the traditional dance house which became the model of the Hungarian dance houses. In 1972, he and his friends organized the first private dance house in Budapest where young people could learn folk dances and folk songs. Halmos became the main character of the dance house movement.
In 1975, he began to publish on Transylvanian folk music, and he started to work at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for Musicology. Halmos collected folk music and folk songs from Ádám István. Halmos established the Folk Dance House Archive in 1999. The Hungarian Heritage House got the Archive in 2001. His bequest is also available at the Hungarian Heritage House as the part of Lajtha László Folklore Documentation Library and Archive.
Halmos got many prizes, and he was the main character among the organizers of dance houses from the 1970s.He died 18 June 2013, Budapest.
Karel Haloun is an artist and designer of posters and LP covers for several music bands in 1980s and 1990s in Czechoslovakia. He collaborated on the decoration of the “Junior klub” in Na Chmelnici, Prague. He is a non-playing member of the music bands Jasná páka and Hudba Praha, very popular bands of the club scene of Prague in the 1980s. The Popmuseum in Prague has his rare poster to the first concert of the Rolling Stones in Prague in 1990, which, in the end, was not used to promote the concert. Karel Haloun teaches at the Academy of Arts, Architecture and Design in Prague.
- Praha, Prague, Czech Republic
Heide Hampel collaborated with the Neubrandenburg Literary Center since its foundation in 1972, became deputy chief in 1985 and was the head and chief executive officer of the center until 2005. She also played a key role in the establishment and maintenance of the Brigitte-Reimann Archive.
- Neubrandenburg , Germany undefined
Gábor Hanák is a historian, documentary filmmaker, public collection specialist, and head of the Cseh Tamás Archives. After finishing secondary school, he obtained a qualification as a studio technician at Hungarian Television (MTV) in 1963. He completed a degree in Hungarian Literature and History at Eötvös Lóránt University of Budapest in 1968. He worked at Hungarian Television from 1969 to 1984, where he ended up as editor-in-chief of the programs related to the social sciences.
At MTV he was mainly involved in creating popular historical programs, the most memorable of which included Krónika/Pergőtűz (“Chronicle/Running Fire”) and Századunk (“Our Century”), to which he contributed as editor and dramaturgs. He began making contributions to “Our Century” as a university student, and his talents were quickly discovered by Péter Bokor, the creator of the program. Bokor and Hanák worked together for decades, and by 2006 they had released some 500 episodes.
For these television programs, he did several interviews with historians who were treated with suspicion by the Party (e.g. Domokos Kosáry, György Bónis, Erik Fügedi, Jenő Szűcs, and Elemér Mályusz) and who often challenged official historical narratives. Representatives of the Party at MTV, however, often censored the episodes. Therefore, the history of his oeuvre is entangled with the history of the Kádár era: it is a history of concessions and prohibitions, and of the evolving relationship between censorship and the public sphere.
In some cases, he had to wait a decade before a given work would be shown. For instance, his portrait film on Communist politician and sociologist Ferenc Erdei (1976-1980) remained in its film canister until 1986. Similarly, his video interview with political thinker István Bibó (1971-1975) was broadcasted ten years after it had been completed. In order to deceive the political censors, he sometimes used minor tricks: he submitted to supervision the portrait film on Domokos Kosáry together with that of Iván Berend T., the president of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences at the time, hoping that the censors would accept the two in a pack. Still, the film was not presented until 1986.
Those portrait films, which were about key figures of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution (such as Ferenc Donáth, Géza Losonczy, Miklós Gimes, and Miklós Vásárhelyi) were met with particularly strong interest. The Hungarian Revolution (which was referred to as a counterrevolution at the time) was one of Hanák’s primary topics, and he even did video interviews with Hungarian exiles in Austria. He also made films about the important personalities of the interwar period. Hanák preferred to balance on the border of what was acceptable to the regime, and sometimes his work caused fissures within the Party.
After leaving MTV, he was employed at the Budapest Film Studio (BFS), which he directed from 1985 to 1992. This firm was established as the successor to the former News and Documentary Factory (Híradó- és Dokumentumfilm Gyár) at the end of the 1950s. BFS evolved into a central scene for the renaissance of Hungarian film production, where the most significant directors shot films of various sorts, including movies and documentaries. One such example was Tutajosok (Raftsmen, 1988) by Judit Elek, a film which was based on the documents of the Tiszaeszlár trial in 1882 and dealt with the issue of anti-Semitism in Hungary. According to the director, who spoke at the 25th anniversary of the film, MTV withdrew its support for the film while it was still being shot. As Elek recalled, “Everybody started to panic because there was an unspoken but widely known view expressed by [cultural politician] György Aczél, according to which there have always been, are, and always will be Jews but nobody should speak about them.” She added that the film was saved by Gábor Hanák, who helped to make sure the movie was finished.
Together with Péter Bokor, Hanák thought that the preservation of the interviews made for documentaries was highly important, since they constituted raw material for filmmakers and a significant source for historical research. The recordings document personal histories of people who had little chance to present the narratives of their own experiences in the socialist period. Gradually, filmmakers learned that the system allowed one to record practically everything, even if only for the camera, i.e. without any actual chance of being released. In an interview, Hanák spoke about the recurring scandals that arose because they tended to spend more time shooting than was considered necessary for a film. In one case, they recorded approximately 30 hours for a one-hour program. The idea of archiving and preserving the recordings for posteriority (i.e. the idea of establishing of a video archive of sorts) was slowly taking shape in Bokor’s and Hanák’s minds.
The ban of the program Krónika in 1983 required immediate action on Bokor’s and Hanák’s part if they wanted to save the recordings. Because of the practices of film production at the time, many recordings were lost. There was no room to store the films, and no intention of archiving them, so Hanák and Bokor made efforts to set up a video archive, which by the mid-1980s had been established. The video archive became part of the collection of the Széchényi National Library (OSZK) in 1986, and Hanák became the director of the Collection of Historical Interviews (TIT) until his retirement in 2009.
The personal credibility of Hanák was a great asset in the quest to do new interviews and enlarge the collection. People trusted him and were more willing to tell their stories to him and in front of his camera. Interviewing required historical research, which became considerably easier when Gyula Juhász, the general director of OSZK, set up a special collection in the late 1980s named Collection of Prints Closed to the Public, where former closed stacks became accessible to researchers with permission. As a result, samizdat materials and émigré publications became available to interviewers, and this proved extremely important when the interviews were done.
The first interview in TIT was done with Irén Gróf, the widow of Sándor Haraszti in 1985, followed by interviews with Miklós Vásárhelyi, Zoltán Kallós, Péter Kende, Tibor Méray, and others. While doing the interviews, Hanák and his colleagues stressed that the recordings were made for posteriority and not for the contemporary public, so interviewees usually spoke about more controversial issues as well. As a consequence, the bulk of the material can be studied only with the consent of the interviewees or their relatives.
Gábor Hanák also played a key role in the process of OSZK acquiring the archive of the Hungarian Department of Radio Free Europe and the BBC. The materials produced during the two weeks of the revolution in 1956 are particularly significant for historical research. Some of the relevant materials, including radio recordings, are available online within the framework of the project Hungarian October (www.magyaroktober.hu).
Hanák has been the director of the Foundation for the Promotion of the Hungarian Motion Picture Treasure (MMMA) since 1992. This Foundation is still a main supporter of the TIT. Hanák was also the vice-director general of Duna Channel (Duna Televízió) from its foundation in 1993 until 1997.
In the last decade, the narrator of Századunk (Our century) was the well-known singer-songwriter Tamás Cseh, with whom Hanák got in touch and made friends in the early 1970s. After 2000, the documents Cseh’s life, which had been collected over the course of the years with the help of his mother, started to be digitalized. After Cseh’s death, Gábor Hanák led the creation of an interdisciplinary archive out of the manifold material of various formats. His aim was to foster comparative research on Cseh’s oeuvre and its era. The archive was operating first as part of the National Library. It then became part of the Hungarian National Archive, and later the Hungarian Art Nonprofit Ltd. (Magyar Alkotóművészeti Közhasznú Nonprofit Kft.).
- Budapest, Hungary
Professor Branko Hanž was an employee of the National and University Library in Zagreb from 1951 until 1987, and was also assistant director in the period from 1972 to 1983. He is the founder of the Collection of the Press in Exile, later renamed the Foreign Croatica Collection.
His job was to take care of the collection items and he was also in charge of the D-lockers located in the director's office. He liaised with Croatians in the exile during the socialist period and after its collapse. In the 1990s, when the Collection was open to the public, he was in charge of its use and promotion, and also authored two catalogues of the Collection.
Željka Lovrenčić says that he viewed cultural opposition as “Croatian unity”, “where the Croatian people cannot be divided into those living in Croatia and those who are in some way evil and live in the exile. In a word, this equates to unification not only of the publications but of Croatia too – the Croatian exile and the Croatian homeland.” His opposition activities were revealed in his maintaining of foreign collection items at the National Library, and his correspondence with émigrés Vinko Nikolić, Karlo Mirth and George J. Prpić.
- Zagreb, Croatia